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Gramática

 Part of Speeches

 

A typical sentance order is as the followings:

Subject

Auxilary

Adv frequency

Verb

Object

Adv manner

Adv place

Adv time

Subject: a person or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with.

Alex went to school

Word: a single distinct meaningful element of speech or writing, used with others (or sometimes alone) to form a sentence and typically shown with a space on either side when written or printed.

e.g.

Teahfr

Father

Subject can be a noun or a pronoun

Noun: a word (other than a pronoun) used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things common noun, or to name a particular one of these proper noun.

Alex went to school

He went to school

Pronoun: a word that can function by itself as a noun phrase and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g., I, you ) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g., she, it, this ).

Subjective Pronounsa subject pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a verb.

We 

I  

You 

You 

They

He/She/It 

 

Objective Pronouns  an object pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used typically as a grammatical object

Us

Me

You 

You

Them 

Him/Her/It 

 

Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective is an adjective that is used to show ownership. It comes before a noun in the sentence and lets us know to whom the noun belongs.

Our 

  My

Your 

Your 

Their

His/Her/Its 

 Possessive Pronouns: a pronoun indicating possession

 Ours

Mine

  Yours

Yours

  Theirs

His/Hers/Its 

It is mine  

It is my (book, pen, etc.)  

Reflexive(intensive) Pronoun: is a type of pronoun that is preceded by the adverb, adjective, pronoun, or noun to which it refers, so long as that antecedent is located within the same clause.

Ourselves

Myself

Yourselves

Yourself

Themselves

Himself/Herself/Itself

I studied French by myself

 

 

 Adjective: a word or phrase naming an attribute, added to or grammatically related to a noun to modify or describe it.

Adverb  :     a word or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb, or other adverb or a word group, expressing a relation of place, time, circumstance, manner, cause, degree, etc. (e.g., gently, quite, then, there ).

Good is an adjective

Well is an adverb

Good Sara drives well

Adverb of frequency: are ones that describe when or how often something is done.

 

Adverb of manner:are used to tell us the way or how something is done

Adj + ly

Beautiful+ly = Beautifully

 

Sara drives beautifully

 Adverb of place: tells us where something happens. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the clause that they modify.

 Adverb of time: that change or qualify the meaning of a sentence by telling us when things happen are defined as adverbs of time.

 

Sara goes to school at 08:00am

 

Object: a person or thing to which a specified action or feeling is directed.

Alex helped Sara

Alex helped her

 

VERB: a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen.

 Infinitive: the basic form of a verb, without an inflection binding it to a particular subject or tense

Conjugation: the variation of the form of a verb in an inflected language such as Latin, by which are identified the voice, mood, tense, number, and person.

 

Verb: a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen.

 

  1. Auxiliary: Verbs  that come before main verbs in a verb phrase.
  2. Lexical: All other verbs other than auxiliary verbs. It is a main verb.

2.1: Lexical Regular Verbs: are those whose past tense and past participles are formed by adding a -d or an -ed to the end of the verb. "To roll" is a good example of a regular verb: roll, rolled, rolled.

2.2: Lexical Irregular Verb: A verb in which the past tense is not formed by adding the usual -ed ending. Examples of irregular verbs are sing (past tense sang); feel (felt); and go (went).

Auxilaries:

To be(am, is, are, was, were) + Modals(can, could, shall, should, may, might, will, would, must, ought to)

+do, does, did + have, has, had

  •   Do/Does/Did

Sara did her homework----------- Sara do her homework?

 

  • Have/Has/Had

 

  I have a pen----Do I have a pen

I study English--------Do I have to study English?

I had a sandwich last night.--------Did I have a sandwich last night?

 

I studi French----------------?Have I studied French

 

Sara studies

 

Usually we only add 'S' to a verb when we conjugate it in the third person but notice how To Have and To Go are slightly irregular (though they still both end in S).

Have and Go in Negative Sentences

To make a negative sentence in English with To Have and To Go we use Don't or Doesn't followed by Have or Go (never Has or Goes).

Affirmative: You have a pen.
Negative: You don't have a pen.

You will see that we add don't between the subject and the verb. We use Don't when the subject is I, you, we or they.

Affirmative: He has a pencil.
Negative: He doesn't have a pencil.

When the subject is he, she or it, we add doesn't between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that we don't use the normal third person conjugation (has, goes) in negative sentences. We use the base form of the infinitive as seen below.

Does Sara study? h

 

We study

 

We don’t study

We can study

We could study

 

must

should

could

might

would

Past to Present

must

shall

can

may

will

Present to Future

 

Present Simple/Affirmative/1st person plural subject+modal:

We could study

Present Simple/Affirmative/1st person plural subject:

We study

Past Simple/Affirmative/1st person plural subject:

We studied

Past Simple/Interrogative/1st person plural subject:

Did we study?

Present Simple/Affirmative/3rd person singular subject:

Sara goes to school

Present Simple/Interrogative/3rd person singular subject:

Does Sara go to school?

Present Simple/Negative/3rd person singular subject:

Sara doesn’t go to school.

Past Simple/Affirmative/3rd person singular subject:

Sara went to school

Past Simple/Interrogative/3rd person singular subject:

Did Sara go to school?

Present Simple/Negative/3rd person singular subject:

Sara didn’t go to school

 

Sara should/shall goes to school

 

 

Should Sara go to school?

 

Sara should not go to school

 

Sara should go to school

 

Should Sara go to school?

 

Sara shouldn’t go to school

Ali and his spouse want to study in Canada

.

Ali and his wife can  to stay in Canada.

 

Should they go?

 

 

Interrogative, 3rd singular person:

Does Sara speaks English?

 

Present simple, 3rd plural subject, interrogative:

Did Do Sara and Ali speak English?

 

Negative, present simple, 3rd singular subject:

Sara doesn’t speak English

 

Interrogative, past simple:

Does  Did Alex go to his mother’s home?

 

Present simple, negative with 3rd singular subject:

Sara’s father don’t  doesn’t speak English

 

Past Simple, negative:

Alex doesn’t  didn’t like to learn English

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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